The most common base of Sindoor is turmeric powder which becomes red when mixed with lime juice or lime powder (calcium compound), moistened in water, or with alum, iodine and camphor, or with oil and sea shell powder (calcium salts), or aguru, chandan and kasturi. It can also be made of sandalwood mixed with musk, or from a mixture of saffron ground with kusumbha flower.
Another traditional ingredient used in making kumkum was raw rice in water heated in a pan until it formed into a glue-like red carbonaceous compound which solidified on cooling. At the time of placing the kumkum, it was made into a paste by adding water. National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI) color experts say that in olden days sindoor was made with a special type of red marble stone, covered with turmeric and a little oil and left undisturbed for a few days, after which it turned into red powder
According to Indian Standard :-Sindoor is a homogeneous fine powder consisting of pigments, colours in a medium having baryte
powder as the main ingredient. Baryte powder is obtained from stone of typically 99 percent barium sulphate.It is applied on parting of hair. It is generally available in red shades.
see:-IS 14649 : 1999